is the ongoing endeavour to ensure tourist destinations, products
and services are accessible to all people, regardless of their physical
limitations, disabilities or age. It encompasses publicly and
privately owned tourist locations. The improvements not only benefit
those with permanent physical disabilities, but also parents pushing
buggies, elderly travelers, people with temporary injuries, such as a
broken leg, and their relatives, friends and other companions.
Agritourism is a style of vacation that normally takes place on a
farm or ranch. This may include the chance to help with farming and
ranching tasks during the visit. Agritourism is considered to be a niche
or uniquely adapted form of tourism and is often practiced in wine
growing regions such as Australia, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and North
America. Tourists engage in farm activities ranging from picking fruit
or feeding animals, or planting crops.
Biodynamic agriculture, or biodynamics comprises an ecological and
sustainable farming system, that includes many of the ideas of organic
farming (but predates the term). It is based on the anthroposophical
teachings of Rudolf Steiner, particularly on the eight lectures given
by him in 1924 at Schloss Koberwitz in what was then Silesia, Germany
nowadays Poland (close to Wrocław). At the time Steiner believed that
the introduction of chemical farming was a major problem. Steiner was
convinced that the quality of food in his time was degraded, and he
believed the source of the problem were artificial fertilizers and
pesticides, however he did not believe this was only because of the
chemical or biological properties relating to the substances involved,
but also due to spiritual shortcomings in the whole chemical approach
to farming. Steiner considered the world and everything in it as
simultaneously spiritual and material in nature, an approach termed
monism. He also believed that living matter was different from dead
matter, a viewpoint commonly referred to as vitalism. The term
biodynamic was coined by Steiner's adherents. A central aspect of
biodynamics is that the farm as a whole is seen as an organism, and
therefore should be a closed self-nourishing system, which the
preparations nourish. Disease of organisms is not to be tackled in
isolation but is a symptom of problems in the whole organism. There are
other approaches to biodynamics, some of which employ some unique
agricultural techniques, including those of Hugh Lovel, Greg Willis and
Glen Atkinson. The main 'new' development of biodynamics has been in
the use of homeopathic techniques for preparing and applying the
Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials
(those with plant and animal origins). Compost is used in gardening
and agriculture as a soil amendment. Compost is also used as a seed
starting medium generally mixed with a small portion of sand for
improved drainage. Composting is the process of producing compost
through aerobic decomposition of biodegradable organic matter. The
decomposition is performed primarily by aerobes, although larger
creatures such as ants, nematodes, and oligochaete worms also
contribute. Composting can be divided into the two areas of home
composting and farming composting. Both scales of composting use the
same biological processes, however techniques and different factors
must be taken into account. Composting is the controlled decomposition
of organic matter. Rather than allowing nature to take its slow course,
a composter provides an optimal environment in which decomposers can
A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp, created for
anthropogenic discharge such as wastewater, storm water runoff or
sewage treatment, and as habitat for wildlife. Natural wetlands act as
biofilters, removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from
the water, and constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate these
features. Vegetation in a wetland provides a substrate (roots, stems,
and leaves) upon which microorganisms that break down organic materials
can grow. This community of microorganisms is known as the periphyton.
The periphyton and natural chemical processes are responsible for
approximately 90 percent of pollutant removal and waste breakdown. The
plants remove about 7 to 10 percent of pollutants, and act as a carbon
source for the microbes when they decay. Different species of aquatic
plants have different rates of heavy metal uptake, a consideration for
plant selection in a constructed wetland used for water treatment.
Treated wastewater can be reused in agriculture.
A geothermal heat pump system is a heating and/or an air
conditioning system that utilizes the Earth's ability to store heat in
the ground and water thermal masses. This system will take advantage of
a land mass as a heat exchanger to either heat or cool a building
structure. These systems operate on a very simple premise; the ground,
below the frost line, stays at approximately 50 °F (10 °C) year round
and a water-source heat pump utilizes that available heat in the winter
and puts heat back into the ground in the summer. A geothermal system
differs from a conventional furnace or boiler by its ability to transfer
heat versus the standard method of producing the heat. As energy costs
continue to rise and pollution concerns continue to be a hot topic;
geothermal systems may hold a solution to both of these concerns. A
particular advantage is that they can use electricity produced from
renewable sources, like solar and wind power, to heat spaces and water
much more efficiently than an electric heater. This allows buildings to
be heated with renewable energy without transporting and burning
biomass on site, producing biogas for use in gas furnaces or relying
solely upon solar heating. Geothermal heat pump systems are straight
forward and do not require high tech components.
One of the new approaches to biodynamic agriculture is the one developed by the Eureka Institute in Trieste, Italy. As many of us are aware today we are faced with some difficult problems and decisions regarding our relationship with nature. Overwhelmed by human pollution including, trans genetics and a shortage of drinkable water nature is not able to respond positively to our human needs. To reverse this path we must assist nature to strengthen the nutrition value of food in order to sustain man in all of his/her components, the body, soul and spirit.
One way to begin to address the above mentioned problems is to study and apply homeopathic medicines to these issues. It is well known and documented that plants express no more than the 30 to 40% of its genetic capabilities (DNA); the remainder part is present but 'silent', which means 'not expressed'. We can hypothesise than the vegetable world possesses enormous possibilities of adaptation and answers to the above-mentioned critical phenomena that limit the agricultural production and increase the agricultural costs. The 'homeodynamic method' works by stimulating these 'silent' factors of life and develops the ability of the plants to adapt and resist parasites and climatic stresses, so that the plants begin to reveal their precious safeguard of life, their production capabilities and their qualities.
The term 'homeodynamic' refers to the interventions applied with products derived from the field of homeopathy, or rather interventions through which the contained information in a natural substance is 'extracted' through the creation of dyes or maceration solutions (preparation of a solution by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water), and therefore transmitted as information to the DNA of the plant, or to the Earth's life, thanks to its watery component. Since water is the base of every living being, we can access its ability to transmit information, in order to stimulate all life forms.
The 'homeodynamic method' helps to stimulate:
- the formation of humus in the ground (without the support of organic substance)
- the organic substance's composting process
- the activation of ground, plant and water purification processes
- the principle vegetable stages (germination, flowering, sucker growth, maturation, formation of vitamins, active principles)
- the resistance to climatic stress (cold, warm, dryness, dampness)
- the resistance to parasites and infesting species
- the resistance to brackish water
- the resistance to GMO pollens
- the resistance to electromagnetic fields/li>
Homeodynamic agriculture uses a homeopathic process making it an
eco-compatible agricultural method (the homeodynamic products are 100%
water) that produces foods of higher quality, in an economic way,
allowing a sensible reduction of production costs.
(Source: Eureka Institute), Edited by Frangiskos Karelas
Homeopathy is a form of alternative medicine, first proposed by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796, that treats patients with heavily diluted preparations which are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented. Homeopathic remedies are prepared by serial dilution with shaking by forceful striking, which homeopaths term "succussion," after each dilution under the assumption that this increases the effect of the treatment. Homeopaths call this process "potentization". Dilution often continues until none of the original substance remains.
Homeopathy is a vitalist philosophy in that it interprets diseases
and sickness as caused by disturbances in a hypothetical vital force or
life force. It sees these disturbances as manifesting themselves as
unique symptoms. Homeopathy maintains that the vital force has the
ability to react and adapt to internal and external causes, which
homeopaths refer to as the "law of susceptibility". The law of
susceptibility implies that a negative state of mind can attract
hypothetical disease entities called "miasms" to invade the body and
produce symptoms of diseases. However, Hahnemann rejected the notion of a
disease as a separate thing or invading entity and insisted that it was
always part of the "living whole".
A natural building involves a range of building systems and
materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving
sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use
of minimally-processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as
those which, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living
environments and maintain indoor air quality. Natural building tends to
rely on human labor, more than technology. As Michael G. Smith observes,
it depends on "local ecology, geology and climate; on the character of
the particular building site, and on the needs and personalities of the
builders and users".
Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely
excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth
regulators, and livestock feed additives. As far as possible organic
farmers rely on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures and
mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and tilth, to
supply plant nutrients, and to control weeds, insects and other pests.
Recycling involves processing used materials into new products to
prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of
fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from
incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the
need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas
emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component
of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce,
Reuse, Recycle" waste hierarchy.
Solar power is the technology of obtaining usable energy from the
light of the Sun. Solar energy has been used in many traditional
technologies for centuries and has come into widespread use where other
power supplies are absent, such as in remote locations and in space. .
Solar cells, also referred to as photovoltaic cells, are devices or
banks of devices that use the photovoltaic effect of semiconductors to
generate electricity directly from sunlight. Until recently, their use
has been limited because of high manufacturing costs. One cost
effective use has been in very low-power devices such as calculators
with LCDs. Another use has been in remote applications such as roadside
emergency telephones, remote sensing, cathodic protection of pipe
lines, and limited 'off grid' home power applications.
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental
stewardship, farm profitability and prosperous farming communities.
These goals have been defined by a variety of disciplines and may be
looked at from the vantage point of the farmer or the consumer.
Sustainable agriculture refers to agricultural production that can be
maintained without harming the environment.
Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations. The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity. As early as the 1970s "sustainability" was employed to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems." Ecologists have pointed to The Limits to Growth, and presented the alternative of a “steady state economy” in order to address environmental concerns.
The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken
into three constituent parts: environmental sustainability, economic
sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability.
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, wind mills for mechanical power, wind pumps for pumping water or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
At the end of 2008, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 121.2 gigawatts (GW), which is about 1.5% of worldwide electricity usage; and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration (with large governmental subsidies), such as 19% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 13% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. As of May 2009, eighty countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.
Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric power
transmission network; smaller facilities are used to provide electricity
to isolated locations. Utility companies increasingly buy back surplus
electricity produced by small domestic turbines. Wind energy as a power
source is attractive as an alternative to fossil fuels, because it is
plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no
greenhouse gas emissions. However, the construction of wind farms is not
universally welcomed because of their visual impact and other effects
on the environment.